Background

The impact of dupilumab, an antieinterleukin (IL) 4 receptor an antibody that inhibits IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, on vaccine responses of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is unknown.

 

Objectives

To assess T cell-dependent and T cell-independent humoral immune responses to tetanus and meningococcal vaccines, IgE seroconversion to tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination, and dupilumab efficacy and safety.

 

Methods

In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study (NCT02210780), adults with moderate-to-severe AD received dupilumab (300 mg) or placebo weekly for 16 weeks, and single doses of Tdap and quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines at week 12. Primary endpoint was proportion of patients achieving satisfactory IgG response to tetanus toxoid at week 16.

 

Results

In total, 178 patients completed the study. Similar positive immune responses (≥4-fold increase in antibody titer, or an antibody titer of ≥8) were achieved in the dupilumab and placebo groups to tetanus (83.3% and 83.7%, respectively) and meningococcal polysaccharide (86.7% and 87.0%, respectively). Dupilumab significantly decreased total serum IgE; most dupilumab-treated patients were Tdap-IgE seronegative at week 32 (62.2% dupilumab and 34.8% placebo). Dupilumab improved key AD efficacy endpoints (P\.001). Injection-site reactions and conjunctivitis were more common with dupilumab, AD exacerbations more frequent with placebo.

 

Limitation

Patients’ prior vaccination status was not available before enrollment.

 

Conclusion

Dupilumab did not affect responses to the vaccines studied, significantly decreased IgE, and improved measures of AD severity versus placebo, with an acceptable safety profile.

 

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